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AVT Therapy for Cochlear Implant
Auditory-verbal therapy is a method for teaching deaf children to listen and speak using their residual hearing in addition to amplification devices such as hearing aids, and cochlear implants. There is evidence "for the validity and effectiveness of the A-V intervention model". The hearing age of a child is the duration of time since the child has had optimal access to sound. In these studies, the average rate of language development increased significantly during the time on the programme compared to the average rate of language development prior to embarking on the programme. Studies found AV to be an effective intervention. When listening and spoken language outcomes of children with a hearing loss were compared to those with typical hearing most children attending AVT had ‘scores within or above the average range for typical hearing children for language (74.4%-75.6%), vocabulary (79.6%) and speech performance (71.5%).
In the UK, access to auditory verbal therapy is currently available under NHS.
Children on the autism spectrum often have difficulty understanding the communication of others and communicating effectively with them. In fact a child on the autism spectrum may not see any reason to communicate with other people. This may delay their language acquisition and lead to frustration when they cannot make their needs understood. If they find play and social situations difficult and so avoid them, they also have fewer opportunities to learn language.
Children on the autism spectrum often have communication problems more complex than straightforward speech and language difficulties. Characteristically they can find it hard to interpret social behaviour and imagine another individual's state of mind. Reluctance to interact with the world may be evident in the way they fail to make eye contact, use hand gestures, or understand body language.

A delay in spoken language may be the most obvious indication that something is wrong, and the speech and language therapist (SALT) may be one of the first professionals to meet the child. It is vital, however, that the assessment of the child should take into account all aspects of communication and social functioning, not just speech and language. The assessment should be part of a co-ordinated multi-disciplinary assessment which considers how aspects of the assessment relate to and influence one another. Specialists in speech and language are, therefore, key professionals when it comes to assessment and intervention.

Some children on the autism spectrum have limited or even no speech, and their understanding of other's speech may vary enormously. In such cases therapists may focus on getting the child to communicate using visual methods such as signing, symbols and picture systems. They may spend time helping the child develop listening and attention skills; play and social skills; social understanding; understanding of language and expressive language.
At the opposite end of the spectrum, some children have good vocabularies and can talk on particular topics in great depth. Some, but not many, have problems with pronunciation. Many have difficulty using language effectively, and many also have problems with word and sentence meaning, intonation, and rhythm or say things that have no content or information.
Speech and language therapists also work with children who stammer both individually and in groups. It is important, if possible, to see a specialist who works regularly with stammering and keeps up to date with the latest approaches to therapy. If you are told to wait and see, as your child will probably grow out of it, the person is unlikely to be experienced in stammering. It is true that the majority of children do recover naturally from stammering, but you should still be given guidance on how to support your child, and the dysfluency should be actively monitored.
Indirect therapy
With pre-school children, indirect therapy is the method more commonly used, and is carried out through you as parents. You may be asked to attend appointments without your child, to discuss ways in which you can best provide support at home. Sometimes arrangements are made for parents to work together in small groups.
Direct therapy
For younger children, both indirect and direct therapy techniques can be equally successful, and different approaches suit different children. Children should be seen by a speech therapist as soon as possible after stammering starts, so that they can be assessed and actively monitored.
What is apraxia of speech?
Apraxia is a type of motor speech disorder that affects the way the body is able to produce speech. Motor speech disorders are neurological in nature, meaning a child's brain has difficulty coordinating the different body parts needed to produce speech—the tongue, lips, and lower jaw. Due to this neurological difference, children with apraxia struggle with sequencing and articulating sounds, syllables, and words when they are trying to communicate. As a result of these struggles, children with apraxia can be difficult to understand. Apraxia is different from other motor speech disorders in that it is not caused by muscle weakness, a limited range of motion, or paralysis of any muscles.
Mis-artculation is not a disease but a wrong habit developed during childhood. Children start speaking by imitating elder members of their families. In the beginning whenever children mis-articulate, parents and other family members should correct their pronunciation by repeating words. Parents and family members who correct the pronunciation of their children are successful in curing them and those who do not, their children become habitual of mis-articulation.
Children who mis-articulate are having normal tongue and other speech organs. However there is a mis-conception among some people that mis-articulation is due to the reason that tongue of such children is stuck somewhere in the mouth. If a person can move his tongue out of mouth then there is nothing wrong with the tongue.
Candidate are taught about correct pronunciation of words and then practiced regularly in the Centre. Speaking correctly regularly, he becomes habitual of talking correctly.
Deafness and Hearing Loss
Hearing loss and deafness
A person who is not able to hear as well as someone with normal hearing – hearing thresholds of 25dB or better in both ears – is said to have hearing loss. Hearing loss may be mild, moderate, severe or profound. It can affect one ear or both ears, and leads to difficulty in hearing conversational speech or loud sounds.
'Hard of hearing' refers to people with hearing loss ranging from mild to severe. They usually communicate through spoken language and can benefit from hearing aids, captioning and assistive listening devices. People with more significant hearing losses may benefit from cochlear implants.
'Deaf' people mostly have profound hearing loss, which implies very little or no hearing. They often use sign language for communication.

Causes of hearing loss and deafness
The causes of hearing loss and deafness can be divided into congenital causes and acquired causes.

Impact of hearing loss : Functional impact
One of the main impacts of hearing loss is on the individual's ability to communicate with others. Spoken language development is often delayed in children with deafness. Hearing loss and ear diseases such as otitis media can have a significantly adverse effect on the academic performance of children. However, when opportunities are provided for people with hearing loss to communicate they can participate on an equal basis with others. The communication may be through spoken/ written language or through sign language.
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